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Scottish Highlanders on the Eve of the Great Migration, 1725-1775: The Northern Highlands

by David Dobson

Item Number: 9819
Formats: Online ~ Mobi ~ ePub ~ PDF

eBook Price: $16.50   Print Price: $24.00


Description

In 2005 Clearfield Company launched a series of books by David Dobson designed to identify the origins of Scottish Highlanders who traveled to America prior to the Great Highland Migration that began in the 1730s and intensified thereafter. Much of the Highland emigration was directly related to a breakdown in social and economic institutions. Under the pressures of the commercial and industrial revolutions of the 17th and 18th centuries, Highland chieftains abandoned their patriarchal role in favor of becoming capitalist landlords. By raising farm rents to the breaking point, the chiefs left the social fabric of the Scottish Highlands in tatters. Accordingly, voluntary emigration by Gaelic-speaking Highlanders began in the 1730s. The social breakdown was intensified by the failure of the Jacobite cause in 1745, followed by the British military occupation and repression in the Highlands in the aftermath of the Battle of Culloden. In 1746, the British government dispatched about 1,000 Highland Jacobite prisoners of war to the colonies as indentured servants. Later, during the Seven Years' War of 1756-1763, Highland regiments recruited in the service of the British crown chose to settle in Canada and America rather than return to Scotland.

Once in North America, the Highlanders tended to be clannish and moved in extended family groups, unlike immigrants from the Lowlands who moved as individuals or in groups of a few families. The Gaelic-speaking Highlanders tended to settle on the North American frontier, whereas the Lowlanders merged with the English on the coast. Highlanders seem to have established "beachheads," and their kin subsequently followed. The best example of this pattern is in North Carolina, where they first arrived in 1739 and moved to the Piedmont, to be followed by others for over a century.

Another factor that distinguishes research in Highland genealogy is the availability of pertinent records. Scottish genealogical research is generally based on the parish registers of the Church of Scotland, which provide information on baptisms and marriages. In the Scottish Lowlands, such records can date back to the mid-16th century, but, in general, Highland records start much later. Americans seeking their Highland roots, therefore, face the problem that there are few, if any, church records available that pre-date the American Revolution. In the absence of Church of Scotland records, the researcher must turn to a miscellany of other records, such as court records, estate papers, sasines, gravestone inscriptions, burgess rolls, port books, services of heirs, wills and testaments, and especially rent rolls. This series is designed to identify the kinds of records that are available in the absence of parish registers and to supplement the church registers when they are available.

This newest volume covers the Northern Highlands, an area that includes the counties of Caithness, Sutherland, Ross, and Cromarty. The main clans traditionally associated with the Northern Highlands were: Mackay, McLeod, Sutherland, Sinclair, Gunn, Munro, Ross, and Mackenzie, all of whom are represented in this volume. The Northern Highlanders were among the pioneers of colonial Georgia, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, New York, and the Canadian Maritimes. Among the vessels that brought them to these places were the Hector to Nova Scotia in 1773, the Friendship to Philadelphia in 1774, and the Peace and Plenty to New York in 1774.

While the present volume is not a comprehensive directory of all people living in the Northern Highlands during the mid-18th century, it does pull together references to more than 2,100 18th-century inhabitants. In all cases, Dr. Dobson gives each Highlander's name, a place name or county within the Highlands, a date (of birth, residence, etc.), and the source. In the majority of cases, we also learn the identities of relatives, the individual's employment, vessel traveled, or other defining characteristic. Among the primary sources Dr. Dobson consulted were the Northern Highland militia lists naming the participants who opposed the Jacobites in 1745-1746.


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